MALO English

French national reference center for rare ENT malformations (MALO)

The reference center takes care of all medical, surgical and rehabilitative aspects related to rare ENT malformations.

The Necker Enfants-Malades university hospital houses many other rare diseases reference centers. Collaboration between these different structures ensures optimal care for children and promotes the development of new innovative therapeutic strategies.


Pr Françoise Denoyelle


Pr Nicolas Leboulanger


Contact us

Patients / families
To make an appointment :
Phone. +33 (0) 1 44 49 46 97

You wish to submit a request for a medical opinion
> Online form

In case of emergency

  • Microtia and ear atresia
  • Choanal atresia (isolated or syndromic)
  • Cervical cyst and fistulas
  • Cysts of the thyroglossal tract
  • Nasal congenital cyst and fistula
  • Velopharyngeal insufficiency and all ENT manifestations of 22q11 microdeletion
  • Cleft velo-palate
  • Unilateral or bilateral congenital laryngeal paralysis
  • Congenital malformations of the larynx (stenosis, webs, diastemas, etc.)
  • Congenital malformations of the trachea (strictures, malacia, tracheoesophageal fistulas, diastemas, etc.)
  • Congenital malformations of the pharynx (malacia, incompetence)
  • All syndromes involving a head / neck malformation (Pierre Robin, Treacher-Collins, CHARGE, etc.)
  • Skull base malformations, meningocele, encephalocele
  • Congenital nasal pyriform aperture stenosis (CNPAS)(isolated or syndromic)
  • Pediatric laryngotracheal papillomatosis
  • Infantile hemangiomas of the upper airways and cervico-facial
  • Incompetence of the pharyngolaryngeal crossroads (aspirations, leaks and salivary stasis)
  • Cervico-facial malformations of the midline (probocis, etc.)
En savoir +

Pr Françoise Denoyelle, ENT – head of the structure

Pr Noël Garabedian, ENT

Pr Vincent Couloigner, ENT

Pr Nicolas Leboulanger, ENT – assistant manager

Prof Natalie Loundon, ENT

Dr Marion Blanchard, ENT

Dr Briac Thierry, ENT – assistant manager

Dr Charlotte Célérier, ENT

Dr Marine Parodi, ENT

Dr Isabelle Rouillon, ENT

Dr Marie-Paule Morisseau Durand, ENT

Therapeutic education for parents of a child with a tracheostomy
> Learn more

Diagnosis, evaluation and care of Pierre Robin from the prenatal period to adulthood (2012)

Major aplasia of the ear (2017, in progress)

Laryngotracheal papillomatosis (planned for 2018)

Non-invasive or minimally invasive exploration of the child’s upper airways – application to laryngotracheal and facial congenital malformations (INSERM U955, équipe 13, IMRB)

Role of immunity and importance of anatomic-pathology in laryngotracheal papillomatosis (cooperation with Imagine Institute and HEGP)


Thulium LASER for endoscopic closure of tracheoesophageal fistula in esophageal atresia »s spectrum: An appropriate tool?
Romain Luscan, François Simon, Naziha Khen Dunlop, Régis Gaudin, Véronique Rousseau, Vincent Couloigner, Nicolas Leboulanger, Françoise Denoyelle, Erea-Noël Garabedian, Briac Thierry
J Pediatr Surg, 2021 Oct, PMID: 33199056 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2020.10.005

Life-Threatening Oropharyngeal Teratoma.
Emilie Bois, Briac Thierry
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2021 Jul, PMID: 33201777 DOI: 10.1177/0194599820973649


International Pediatric Otolaryngology Group (IPOG) Consensus Recommendations: Congenital Cholesteatoma.
Françoise Denoyelle, François Simon, Kay W Chang, Kenny H Chan, Alan G Cheng, Alan T Cheng, Daniel I Choo, Sam J Daniel, Anne Farinetti, Erea-Noël Garabedian, John H Greinwald, Stephen R Hoff, Stephen Hone, Greg R Licameli, Blake C Papsin, Dennis S Poe, Seth Pransky, Richard J H Smith, Jean-Michel Triglia, Joanna Walton, George Zalzal, Nicolas Leboulanger
Otol Neurotol, 2020 Mar, PMID: 31851066 DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002521

Developmental changes of upper airway dimensions in children.
Romain Luscan, Nicolas Leboulanger, Pierre Fayoux, Gaspard Kerner, Kahina Belhous, Vincent Couloigner, Erea-Noël Garabedian, François Simon, Françoise Denoyelle, Briac Thierry
Paediatr Anaesth, 2020 Apr, PMID: 31995659 DOI: 10.1111/pan.13832

Unusual presentation of a first Branchial cleft cyst associated with an abnormal bony canal -a case report.
A. Fanous, V. Couloigner, P. Gorphe, L. Galmiche, M. Alexandru, E-N Garabedian, L. Coffinet, T. Blanc, N. Leboulanger & F. Denoyelle
J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2020 May 29, PMID: 32471510 PMCID: PMC7260795 DOI: 10.1186/s40463-020-00426-5

Malformations Associated With Pediatric Congenital Cholesteatomas.
Léa Distinguin, François Simon, Fiona Alvin, Vincent Couloigner, Nicolas Leboulanger, Noel Garabédian, Natalie Loundon, Françoise Denoyelle
Otol Neurotol, 2020 Oct, PMID: 32925851 DOI: 10.1097/MAO.0000000000002761


– Craniosynostosis and ENT.
Couloigner, V ; Ayari Khalfallah, S
Neurochirurgie, 2019 Nov, PMID: 31568777 DOI: 10.1016/j.neuchi.2019.09.015

– Evaluation of nasal obstruction in children by acoustic rhinometry: A prospective study.
Distinguin, L ; Louis, B ; Baujat, G ; Amaddeo, A ; Fauroux, B ; Couloigner, V & al
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Dec, PMID: 31526938 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.109665

Hearing impairment and osteogenesis imperfecta: Literature review.
Carré, F ; Achard, S ; Rouillon, I ; Parodi, M ; Loundon, N
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, 2019 Oct, PMID: 31202667 DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2019.05.004

Management of Gorham Stout disease with skull-base defects: Case series of six children and literature review.
Simon, F ; Luscan, R ; Khonsari, RH ; Toubiana, J ; Belhous, K ; James, S & al
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2019 Sep, PMID: 31195309 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.06.002


French Society of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery (SFORL) guidelines concerning the role of otorhinolaryngologists in the management of paediatric obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome: Follow-up protocol for treated children.
Akkari, M ; Marianowski, R ; Chalumeau, F ; Fayoux, P ; Leboulanger, N ; Monteyrol, PJ & al
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, 2018 Dec, PMID: 30318322 DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2018.09.006

French Society of ENT (SFORL) guidelines (short version) on the roles of the various treatment options in childhood obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome.
Pateron, B ; Marianowski, R ; Monteyrol, PJ ; Couloigner, V ; Akkari, M ; Chalumeau, F & al
Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis, 2018 Aug, PMID: 29731297 DOI: 10.1016/j.anorl.2018.04.005

4-Year Follow-up in a Child with a Total Autologous Tracheal Replacement.
Kolb, F ; Simon, F ; Gaudin, R ; Thierry, B ; Mussot, S ; Dupic, L & al
N Engl J Med, 2018 Apr 5, PMID: 29617587 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMc1800095

Nasopharynx access by minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery: anatomical study.
Harichane, A ; Chauvet, D ; Hans, S
J Robot Surg, 2018 Dec, PMID: 29549505 DOI: 10.1007/s11701-018-0804-7

Endonasal measurements by acoustic rhinometry in children: A preliminary study.
Wartelle, S ; Simon, F ; Louis, B ; Couloigner, V ; Denoyelle, F ; Garabedian, N & al
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2018 Apr, PMID: 29501319 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2018.01.038


Velopharyngeal insufficiency managed by autologous fat grafting in patients with aberrant courses of internal carotid arteries.
Bois, E ; Celerier, C ; Belhous, K ; Maulet, M ; Leboulanger, N ; Garabedian, N & al
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 May, PMID: 28390603 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.03.012


Idiopathic bilateral vocal cord paralysis in infants: Case series and literature review.
Lesnik M, Thierry B, Blanchard M, Glynn F, Denoyelle F, Couloigner V, Garabedian N, Leboulanger N.
Laryngoscope. 2015 Jul;125(7):1724-8.


New closed skin bone-anchored implant: preliminary results in 6 children with ear atresia.
Denoyelle F, Leboulanger N, Coudert C, Mazzaschi O, Loundon N, Vicaut E, Tessier N, Garabedian EN.
Otol Neurotol. 2013 Feb;34(2):275-81.


Propranolol in the therapeutic strategy of infantile laryngotracheal hemangioma: A preliminary retrospective study of French experience.
Leboulanger N, Fayoux P, Teissier N, Cox A, Van Den Abbeele T, Carrabin L, Couloigner V, Nicollas R, Triglia JM, Ayari S, Froehlich P, Lescanne E, Marianowski R, Mom T, Mondain M, Marie JP, Roger G, Garabédian EN, Denoyelle F.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010 Nov;74(11):1254-7

Physiologic and clinical benefits of noninvasive ventilation in infants with Pierre Robin sequence.
Leboulanger N, Picard A, Soupre V, Aubertin G, Denoyelle F, Galliani E, Roger G, Garabedian EN, Fauroux
B. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):e1056-63


Role of Propranolol in the therapeutic strategy of infantile laryngotracheal hemangioma.
Denoyelle F, Leboulanger N, Enjolras O, Harris R, Roger G, Garabedian EN.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Aug;73(8):1168-72

Contact information

Necker-Enfants malades university hospital
> Department of otolaryngology and cervico-facial surgery (ENT)

149 rue de Sèvres
75743 PARIS Cedex 15

> Hospital map

> Pediatric welcome booklet

In Necker, the MALO reference center in brief 

patients followed at least once a year*
medical consultations*
day hospitalizations*
patients in full hospitalization*
authorized therapeutic education program*
patients trained in therapeutic education*
university courses*

* data valid for 2020